How to read schematics for beginners – when starting to learn electronics, beginners need to learn how to read schematic diagrams. Schematic diagrams show the components and electrical connections of a circuit in schematic or diagram format. A schematic diagram is also known as a circuit diagram, or just schematic.
How to Read Schematics for Beginners
Before being able to read a schematic, it is necessary to learn and recognize the symbol for each component in a circuit. Each symbol in a schematic represents a physical electrical or electronic component.
In the circuit above, the schematic is shown on the left and has two symbols representing two components. The symbol on the very left represents a battery. On the right of the schematic is the symbol that represents a light bulb.
On the right of the above image is the physical implementation of the schematic on the left. Here the actual light bulb and battery can be seen.
Electrical connections between the bulb and battery are represented by lines in the schematic. These lines are wires in the actual circuit.
How to Read Schematics
The article on how to read circuit diagrams for beginners on the Starting Electronics website shows the very basics of how to read schematics. This article uses the same light bulb and battery circuit to explain the basics of circuit diagrams. It shows how to recognize when two wires are connected, or whether they are just crossing each other.
After reading this article, a series of tutorials follows to get the reader to recognize electronic components and their schematic symbols. Each electronic circuit can be built on breadboard. A good way to learn how to read electronics schematics is to follow the tutorials, look at the schematic diagrams and build the circuits.
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LM3909 IC 1.5V LED flasher circuit. A circuit that uses the now obsolete LM3909 IC to flash an LED from a single 1.5V cell. This IC and circuit is now a piece of history. I had one of these circuits running on a PCB for years, the circuit finally failed. My attempts to repair the circuit were unsuccessful. It appears that the IC finally failed. Read on for a look at some electronics history.
LM3909 1.5V LED Flasher Circuit Diagram
Below is the circuit diagram of an LM3909 LED flasher taken from an out of print electronics magazine. I built this circuit on a tiny PCB many years ago. The circuit operated from a single 1.5V cell, but could also operate from a single 1.2V rechargeable cell.
LM3909 1.5V LED Flasher Circuit Diagram
Flashing an LED from a Single Cell
I remember the LM3909 being expensive, costing many more times than a 555 IC. The problem with using a 555 is that it could not be used to flash an LED from a single 1.5V cell, but had to operate from a higher voltage. A 555 also drains a lot of current from a battery because of its internal voltage divider resistors.
When the LM3909 became available it was popular with hobbyists because an LED can not be lit up from a single 1.5V cell. Here was an IC that would flash an LED from a 1.5 or 1.2 volt cell, pretty impressive. The cell would last for a long time too.
LM3909 now Obsolete
Unfortunately the LM3909 is not available anymore. It was made obsolete several years ago and has no equivalent or replacement part. There are some transistor circuits available that will flash an LED from a single cell.
Attempting to Revive my LM3909 Circuit
The only LM3909 IC that I have was used in a LED flasher circuit built on a PCB. Fortunately I had used an 8-pin IC socket on the board, so could remove the IC to test it on breadboard. The PCB and breadboard test circuit are shown below. Notice that only two additional components are needed in the circuit – a capacitor and LED.
LM3909 PCB Circuit and Breadboard Circuit
After many years of service, the LM3909 finally failed. After testing the PCB circuit with a new battery and then building the circuit on breadboard and testing it, the LM3909 was finally declared dead.
In this blog post we look at how beginners wanting to start with Arduino can choose an Arduino board. Help is provided for beginners choosing an Arduino. The difference between an Arduino and AVR ATmega microcontroller is also covered.
Choosing an Arduino for Beginners
The recommended Arduino for beginners is usually the Arduino Uno. On the Starting Electronics website, the article on choosing an Arduino for beginners provides more information on which Arduino to choose when starting to learn about Arduino and writing sketches.
Difference Between Arduino and AVR
Many Arduino beginners are confused about the difference between Arduino and AVR, or Arduino and ATmega. Difference between Arduino and ATmega328 explains what the ATmega328 microcontroller is and how it relates to the Arduino Uno. The article also explains more about the AVR microcontroller found on most Arduino boards.
In older versions of the Raspberry PI Raspbian operating system such as Raspbian Wheezy, the inittab file in /etc/ could be edited to make the OS perform an automatic login at power up. In new versions of Raspbian such as Raspbian Jessie, the inittab file no longer exists. Here is how to automatically log in to the command line interface in Raspbian Jessie.
Automatic Login to the Command Line
In Raspbian Jessie it is now even easier to set up the operating system to automatically log in to the command line. By default Raspbian Jessie automatically logs in to the desktop. Settings can now be changed from an application on the desktop.
Options that can be changed in the Raspberry PI Configuration application are:
- Boot Raspbian to the desktop without login required (default in Jessie)
- Boot Raspbian to the command line interface (CLI) without login required
- Boot Raspbian to the desktop with login required (user name and password must be entered)
- Boot Raspbian to the command line interface with login required
See the full details on how to automatically log in to the command line in Raspbian Jessie.
Use the Raspberry PI Configuration Dialog Box to Change Boot Settings – Click the Image for the Full Article
Breadboard prototyping with an Atmel Xplained board is not as easy as using a board such as an Arduino which allows jumper wires to be connected directly from the board’s headers to the breadboard.
Easily Connecting to an Atmel Xplained Board for Breadboard Prototyping
One solution to easily connect to an Atmel Xplained board from a breadboard is to make up a ribbon cable with two female IDC connectors. This allows jumper wires to be inserted into the IDC connector which can then be connected to a breadboard or breadboard circuit. The image below shows how this is done.
Breadboard Prototyping with an Atmel Xplained Pro Board
The above arrangement of breadboard prototyping is used in the ASF ARM tutorial series that teaches how to use the Atmel Software Framework on ARM Cortex microcontrollers.
The board in the above image is a SAM4N Xplained Pro board.